eCM (Eur Cell Mater / e Cells & Materials) Not-for-Profit Open Access
Created by Scientists, for Scientists
 ISSN:1473-2262         NLM:100973416 (link)         DOI:10.22203/eCM

2019   Volume No 37 – pages 277-291

Title: Understanding tissue-engineered endochondral ossification; towards improved bone formation

Authors: C Knuth, C Kiernan, E Wolvius, R Narcisi, E Farrell

Address: Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Special Dental Care and Orthodontics, Erasmus University Medical Centre Rotterdam, Postbox 2040, 3000 CA Rotterdam, the Netherlands.

E-mail: e.farrell at

Abstract: Endochondral ossification (EO) is the process by which the long bones of the body form and has proven to be a promising method in tissue engineering for achieving cell-mediated bone formation. The present review centred on state-of-the-art research pertaining to mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs)-mediated endochondral bone formation, focusing on the role of donor cells, extracellular matrix and host immune cells during tissue-engineered bone formation. Possible research avenues to improve graft outcome and bone output were highlighted, as well as emerging research that, when applied to tissue-engineered bone grafts, offers new promise for improving the likelihood of such grafts transition from bench to bedside.

Key Words: Endochondral ossification, bone tissue engineering, regenerative medicine, mesenchymal stem cell differentiation, extracellular matrix, vascularisation, collagen type X, immune system.

Publication date: April 10th 2019

Article download: Pages 277-291 (PDF file)


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