eCM (Eur Cell Mater / e Cells & Materials) eCM Open Access Scientific Journal
 ISSN:1473-2262         NLM:100973416 (link)         DOI:10.22203/eCM

2006   Volume No 11– pages 43-56

Title: Collagen-Hydroxyapatite Composites for Hard Tissue Repair

Authors: DA Wahl, JT Czernuszka

Address: Department of Materials, University of Oxford, Parks Road, Oxford, OX1 3PH, UK

E-mail: denys.wahl at

Key Words: Collagen Type I, hydroxyapatite, composite scaffolds, biocompatible devices, bone substitute, tissue engineering

Publication date: March 28th 2006

Abstract: Bone is the most implanted tissue after blood. The major solid components of human bone are collagen (a natural polymer, also found in skin and tendons) and a substituted hydroxyapatite (a natural ceramic, also found in teeth). Although these two components when used separately provide a relatively successful mean of augmenting bone growth, the composite of the two natural materials exceeds this success. This paper provides a review of the most common routes to the fabrication of collagen (Col) and hydroxyapatite (HA) composites for bone analogues. The regeneration of diseased or fractured bones is the challenge faced by current technologies in tissue engineering. Hydroxyapatite and collagen composites (Col-HA) have the potential in mimicking and replacing skeletal bones. Both in vivo and in vitro studies show the importance of collagen type, mineralisation conditions, porosity, manufacturing conditions and crosslinking. The results outlined on mechanical properties, cell culturing and de-novo bone growth of these devices relate to the efficiency of these to be used as future bone implants. Solid free form fabrication where a mould can be built up layer by layer, providing shape and internal vascularisation may provide an improved method of creating composite structures.


Article download: Pages 43-56 (PDF file)
DOI: 10.22203/eCM.v011a06