eCM (Eur Cell Mater / e Cells & Materials) Not-for-profit Open Access
Created by Scientists, for Scientists
 ISSN:1473-2262         NLM:100973416 (link)         DOI:10.22203/eCM

Instructions to authors on submission and formatting

Revised 5th December 2017

Before submitting your manuscript to eCM Journal it is essential that you

  • Check whether the subject matter is within the scope of the journal. The abstract (max. 250 words) should be well-prepared, showing the clinical relevance of the work. Scientific Editors reserve the right to directly return work, which they deem incremental, not hypothesis-driven but observational, technical notes or sufficiently covered in existing literature. If this happens before sending out to review, no detailed comments will be sent to the authors and the submission fee, which is used for external costs during submission, will be lost (non-refundable)!
  • Read and follow all of the instructions below carefully or your work may be unsubmitted at any stage during review or production.

eCM has enabled Open Researcher and Contributor ID (ORCID), which is a non-profit organisation dedicated to solving the long-standing name ambiguity problem in scholarly communication by creating a central registry of unique identifiers for individual researchers and an open, transparent linking mechanism between ORCID and other current author identifier schemes. To learn more about ORCID, please visit:
We encourage all authors and reviewers of eCM to register their ORCID data on the eCM Scholar One database. Integration with the ORCID API and the associated validation of users’ ORCID iDs offers a number of benefits to authors and publishers of scholarly research, including added confidence in the attribution of the submitted work and the ability to quickly populate registration forms with data supplied from the author’s ORCID profil.


General information Manuscript style

General information

  • Submission fee: eCM requires payment of a one-time, non-refundable, $100 submission fee per manuscript. eCM does not charge authors for processing of accepted manuscripts. On completion of payment, submitting authors will receive a 10 digit Worldpay Transaction ID number, which will be required during the submission process on ScholarOne. The Worldpay Transaction ID must be quoted in the letter of submission. Pay Here.

  • eCM is an exclusively on-line journal. Submission of all manuscripts must be made in digital format, through the eCM submission and review web site at:
  • eCM publishes original research of general or specialist interest, review and tutorial papers, within its scope. Papers already pre-submitted to any online archive and distribution service for unpublished preprints, if citable and/or receiving a DOI (see below), can not be accepted for submission to eCM and, if submitted, will be withdrawn as soon as this information is known to eCM (conferences abstracts excluded).
    • A review paper is defined as including an extended literature review and complete bibliography. It can also emphasise authors' new unpublished findings and – in an extended discussion – place the topic in its proper perspective. It can also be complete bibliography of an author's own work, discussed in relation to the work of others.

    • A tutorial paper contains an organised comprehensive review of all relevant published material, such as for a teaching lecture.

    • Letters to the Editor can be sent directly to eCM at
      They will be hosted on the same page as the manuscript being discussed, but will not be listed in PubMed and do not hold the journal's impact factor. Submitted Letters will be reviewed by the Editor-in-Chief and the Scientific Editor of the paper in question.

  • The official language of eCM Journal is UK English. US English is acceptable. A mixture of both forms of English is not acceptable. Should authors wish their paper to be published in US English then the following instruction must be included at the beginning of the final manuscript – below the main title – “Please publish in US English”, otherwise the paper will be edited to read in UK English. If English is not your native tongue, we strongly recommend that you acquire assistance from a professional scientific editing service (best is if they are experienced, native English (US or UK) speaking academics) to edit the manuscript before it is submitted, since scripts with a poor standard of English will be unsubmitted.

  • The potential clinical relevance of the work must be mentioned briefly at the end of the Abstract, and in more detail in the Discussion.

  • Papers should be as concise as possible. The following limits are recommended:

    • review papers, approx. 8,000 words (not including tables, references etc.)
    • research papers, 6,000 words (not including tables, references etc.).

  • Letter of Submission - Compulsory for Submission

    • A letter of submission (signed by ALL authors) MUST be included with the paper submission. In its absence, the paper will be unsubmitted. The letter of submission must contain the Worldpay Transaction ID to confirm submission fee payment. Download the eCM_Letter of Submission template.
      This letter must contain declarations:
      • of any potential conflicts of interest
      • of support from any commercial sources
      • that the manuscript is exclusively submitted to eCM
      • that all the research meets ethical guidelines
      • that the manuscript has been read and approved by all named authors
      • that each author has contributed to a minimum of two of the four major parts of the submitted work (1. Planning, 2. Data collection, 3. Data analysis, 4. Manuscript preparation and editing)
      • that there are no "gift authorships"
      • that the authors have given due consideration to the protection of intellectual property associated with the work.

  • All authors of eCM published papers are expected to be available to review manuscripts for the journal. The rationale behind this is that your peers have volunteered their time to bring your work to publication; hence, we expect you also to be ready to review newly submitted manuscripts in your field of expertise.

  • Manuscript submission

    Papers should be submitted in Microsoft Word format (any version, the later the better). The final published version will be prepared, by eCM production team using professional publishing software, in standard Portable Document File (pdf) format. This is the format in which it will appear in the electronic journal. There are no practical limitations concerning text figures – monochrome or colour are equally acceptable. Note: eCM Journal does not publish supplementary figures – all figures must be included in the main text figure sequence. Short video sequences, when bringing exceptional improvement to the paper may also be offered for inclusion as appendices to the paper – please consult the Production Editor in such cases. Full details of the required manuscript standards for submission are described under eCM manuscript style.

  • Reviewing and processing

    • Each abstract is checked for scope by the Editor-in-Chief, who decides whether the manuscript will be assigned to a Scientific Editor (SE) or returned. After assignment to an appropriate SE, the manuscript is managed by that SE – who may also decide whether the paper warrants rejection. If so, then he/she will request that the Editor-in-Chief unsubmits the manuscript. If acceptable, several reviewers are chosen by the SE (sometimes including 1 or 2 suggested by the authors) and the manuscript enters the automatically-controlled review process.

    • A copy of each reviewer's report is sent to the SE, who will use them to guide his/her overall recommendation to the Editor-in-Chief, who then informs the authors on behalf of the journal. Manuscripts can commonly require two or three resubmissions before being acceptable.

    • Possible decisions are:
      • Accept (no changes are necessary and the paper enters the pre-production phase)
      • Minor Revision (minor text changes which only require a final check from the SE before entering the Accept decision)
      • Major Revision (requires major re-work, sometimes including additional experiments and a full re-review of the work after submission of changes)
      • Reject & Resubmit (requires full new experiments to test the hypothesis)
      • Reject (cannot be resubmitted to eCM).

    • Discussion with Reviewers section
      In addition to reviewing the paper critically, we also ask reviewers to raise relevant questions – such as those that are often asked at conferences – to be presented to the author(s). Questions which bring out additional information or which challenge the authors' approach, findings or conclusions are particularly welcomed. While some of these questions may be attended to by appropriate text changes to the final version of the manuscript, other authors' replies will be published in the "Discussion with Reviewers". The reviewers will be identified by name unless they have requested that it be withheld. The SE will check to verify that the reviewers' comments and questions have been answered.

    • Accepted manuscripts will enter the production process, where the text, references, tables and figures are checked and edited before a final page-proof version is produced in pdf format. This pdf proof is then sent, by e-mail, to the corresponding author for final checking. Only correction of minor errors and typographical mistakes are allowed at this stage. A reminder e-mail will be sent if no response is received within 7 days. If no response is received after 10 working days the paper will be published as it stands with the production edits included.

    • Resubmissions
      When resubmitting a revised manuscript, you MUST respond fully to ALL the comments made by the reviewer(s) with a point by point rebuttal in a separate document. You should also list and comment on any changes made to the original manuscript. To expedite processing of the revised manuscript, please be as specific as possible in your response to the reviewer(s). The originally submitted copy of the manuscript cannot be changed. Instead, a new copy of the manuscript must be prepared with changes noted by either using the track changes mode in MS Word, or by highlighting changes in bold and red. The onus is on the author(s) to make the changes as obvious as possible and easy for the reviewer(s) to recognise.
      IMPORTANT: Your original files are available when the revised manuscript is uploaded. Please delete all redundant files before completing the resubmission.

      Note: for decisions other than Minor Revision, resubmitting your manuscript does not guarantee eventual acceptance. Your resubmission will be reviewed by the already selected reviewer(s), or – at our discretion – by newly selected reviewers before a decision is made. New problems might also be detected during the re-review process, which could have been missed in the original review, will require correction.

  • Conflict of Interest

    At the time of submission, authors must disclose any possible conflict of interest in the letter of submission. Reviewers and editors must declare their own competing interests and if necessary disqualify themselves from involvement in the assessment of a manuscript. Please see the conflict of interest policy for details.

  • Publication

    • Each paper has its own Web page with the paper title, authors and address listed. An abstract and list of key words is also included. The final pdf version of the paper can be downloaded from this page. There is no paper-printed version of the journal. Authors may distribute the pdf file of their own paper, though we prefer that they refer any interested party to the paper on the open-access eCM Journal website.
      Note: eCM advertises published papers through social media avenues (such as, but not limited to LinkedIn, Facebook, Twitter etc.).

    • DOI
      During production, each paper is allocated a unique Digital Object Identifier (DOI). This is shown both on the paper’s eCM Journal web page and the pdf file of the final manuscript. This enables efficient archiving of our publication in safe repositories. For further information, see the DOI System website.

    • Graphical abstract
      The graphical abstract is one single-panel, horizontal (landscape orientation) rectangular image that is designed to give readers an immediate understanding of the take-home message of the paper. It will be requested only for accepted manuscripts.

      Technical requirements are as follows:

      • Size: 858 × 229 pixels (X-Y axes) at 400 dpi.
      • Font style: Arial
      • Font size: 10-16
      • Accepted file type: PNG, JPG
      • Content: the abstract should summarise the findings of the manuscript
      • Colours: Effective use of colour is encouraged for increasing the aesthetic quality of the graphical abstracts and directing the reader's attention to focal points of interest
    • Check eCM Graphical Abstracts Guidelines for examples of and comprehensive instructions for graphical abstracts. Every six months, the best graphical abstract will be awarded with a free submission (valid for the following 12 months) to eCM Journal and used as cover of next eCM issue.

    • Volume Number
      A volume contains papers published between either January 1 - June 30, or July 1 - December 31, volume 1 was published in the first half of 2001 each volume since then has been numbered consecutively. A volume is open-ended until the end of its 6-month period and available on the eCM website ( Papers are added, as they become ready for publication. Page numbering starts at the beginning of each volume. Each volume is fronted by its own Web page, containing a hyperlinked full contents list and links to any additional files – such as videos. Guidance is given below as to the page arrangement required for manuscript submission.

  • Copyright

    • The copyright of each paper/manuscript, including the duty to obtain permission to use copyrighted material, remains with the author(s) (or author's employer). Authors must warrant that their work is original, has not been published by another journal and does not infringe any pre-existing copyright.

    • When a manuscript is accepted for publication by eCM Journal, the authors must agree not to submit the same material to another journal in any language. An exception is allowed if the published material appears as a part of a review article or book chapter. In such cases, the original paper/manuscript in eCM Journal must be acknowledged.

    • The author(s) must agree that the paper will be published under the Creative Commons license Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International.

    • The paper/manuscript may also be stored on academic Digital Repositories, kindly asking for a URL  to the original article web page (not direct to the pdf) is also included on the page.

    • Figure reproduction from eCM Journal papers as a part of a review article or book chapter is allowed with kind acknowledgement of the source ( but only if the new publication is distributed under the same license.

eCM Manuscript style

In all cases, full postal and e-mail address of the main author must be included on the manuscript (a work e-mail and private e-mail may be added). All communication between the editors and authors will be by e-mail to the corresponding author. If the submitted manuscript does not conform to the instructions given below, it will be returned and not reviewed.

  • General
  • Title/Headline
  • Authors and affiliations list
  • Running Title
  • Abstract
  • Key Words
  • Corresponding Author details
  • Introduction
  • Materials and Methods
  • Results
  • Discussion
  • Conclusions
  • Acknowledgements
  • References
  • Discussion with reviewers
  • Detailed specification on style (text, headings, equations, symbols, abbreviations, tables, units, statistical tests, figures).
  • General: the submitted manuscript must be formatted as a single-spaced plain Microsoft Word format document using Times New Roman font. No attempt should be made to arrange the text into columns, sections or apply any formatting – other than superscript, subscript, bold, italic and indents (please use embedded ‘tab’ character for indents). Please do not include any embedded styles.

  • Title/Headline: the title should contain no more than twenty words (including subtitle, if any). Lower case should be used and no capitalisation of first letters of individual words applied.
  • Authors list: use first name initials, followed by a period, and last names of all authors separated by commas. Do not add titles (e.g. Prof., Dr., PhD. etc.). Different affiliations should be marked by superscript numbers (1, 2 etc.) immediately following the author name. The corresponding author should be designated by an asterisk (*) – do not superscript. There can only be one corresponding author. Two authors (but not more than two) can share “first authorship” or “last authorship” (to be indicated by the symbol §).
    Affiliations list: each affiliation should include the department, institution, city and country, preceded by the appropriate number in superscript (1,2 etc.).

  • Running Title: an informative running title, of no more than 50 characters, must be provided. Italic font should be used.

  • Abstract: A poor abstract which does not concisely cover the paper contents will mean the manuscript will not be sent for review. The abstract should be no more than 250 words. It should contain the purpose of the work, the main methods used, as well as the main results and conclusions, but not in separate sections. It must not contain phrases like "will be described", "will be discussed", "are presented", etc. Abbreviations may be used in the abstract but must be defined in parentheses the first time they are used, e.g. "...transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was used to...". References should not be included in the abstract. The clinical relevance of the work must also be mentioned within the abstract. The past tense should normally be used in this section.

  • Key Words: provide up to 10 key words or phrases, separated by commas. Do not use abbreviations in the key words.

  • Corresponding Author details (Note: only one): full name, full mailing address, telephone number(s), fax number (optional), as well as, e-mail address must be included.

  • Introduction: this must be a clear and concise statement of the purpose of the paper and the relationship of this paper to what is already in the literature (along with relevant references). Please respect the relevance of all material to the Introduction, Materials and Methods, Results and Discussion and avoid unnecessary repetition. Normally, reference to published work is done in the present tense.

  • Materials and Methods: all eCM reviewers are asked a simple question: ‘Is the M&M section described well enough to allow repetition of the work?’ If the answer is no, the paper is rejected. This section must have complete information (even if already published) for all areas of the study so that others could duplicate the work. This section should carefully describe the methods and materials used including sample size and statistical approaches. Sequence and source of unique constructs etc. should be made available to other scientists to allow repetition. Please provide the manufacturer’s name, city, country and product code (or URL, only if city, country and product code are not available) of all non-generic products used in the work. If the suppliers/manufacturers are international companies, with common website and local agents, only the company name is necessary. The role of any outside organisation in the collection of data, its analysis and interpretation must be described in this section. When animal studies are submitted, Animal Ethics Committee permissions must be mentioned. When using human material from a hospital, the ethics permission must be mentioned. If patient consent forms were used, these must be mentioned. Normally, materials and methods used are described using the past tense.
    Note: the use of pooled human donor cells should be avoided. When unavoidable, their use needs to be justified convincingly within the manuscript (and within the cover letter). For review papers, this section might not be applicable.

  • Results: this section should succinctly state the results without any lengthy discussion or interpretation of individual data. Conclusions should NOT be stated in the Results section. Tabular data should not repeat that already shown in graphical format. Normally, results obtained are described using the past tense, reference to specific figures and tables is done using the present tense.
  • eCM offers the possibility to host Omics data (e.g. genomic sequences) on the same web page as the manuscript. Please mention your file type and size in the comments section and letter of submission.

  • Discussion: the Discussion should summarise, but not repeat, the Results and should distinguish between logical explanations of the results reported and extrapolations or hypotheses drawn from the results and show how each result advances the overall conclusions of the study. The Discussion should show the relationship of the results to what is already in the literature (along with relevant references). If the study only produces an incremental step in knowledge, the paper will not be published. Respect the relevance of all material to the Introduction, Materials and Methods, Results and Discussion and avoid unnecessary repetition. The Discussion must show the potential clinical relevance of the work. The final part of the Discussion should refer back to the rationale for the study (findings into the context of the reason for the study as outlined in the Introduction) and explain how the findings have advanced the area. Normally, results obtained are referred to using the past tense, interpretation or reference to published work is given using the present tense.

  • Conclusions: where possible and reasonable, some conclusion should be made about the wider implications of the study findings, but the conclusion must respect the results presented and not be exaggerated.

  • Acknowledgements: authors should acknowledge in the manuscript all support for the work, including funding, equipment and drugs. Authors should also acknowledge technical support or anyone who has contributed but has not been listed as an author. Any conflict of interest should also be stated here.

  • References

  • Download detailed reference style check list
  • Include all references relevant to the paper. References can be made only to readily available published work and to papers in press. Where papers do not yet have final volume and page numbers, but are available electronically with a Digital Object Identifier (DOI) number, then the DOI number must be quoted. Unpublished results, submitted manuscripts, conference abstracts and personal communications must not be included in the reference list, but can be acknowledged in the text (in parentheses). Important: all references cited in the paper and the names and date in the text must match those in the reference list. In the text use the following style: Jones (1989) or (Jones, 1989) or Jones and Smith (1988). If there are three or more authors, use the form Jones et al. (1993) or (Jones et al., 1993) (use italics for et al.). If more than one paper is published by the same author(s) in the same year, use the form Jones (1986a; 1986b etc.).

  • Reference may be made to Web sites. These must be listed separately, in a list entitled 'Web References', following the main list of references. Web references in the list should be numbered in the order in which they appear in the text. Web references should be referred to in the text as '(Web ref. 1)','(Web ref. 2)' etc. Details of each Web reference should include the full Uniform Resource Locator (URL), followed by the date accessed in square brackets i.e. [dd-mm-yyyy].

    • The References list (Note: not numbered) must be organised in alphabetical order by the first author's last name. For several references with the same first author, the following order must be used: [a] one-author references, ordered by year {e.g. Jones (1989); Jones (1991)}; [b] two-author references, ordered first according to second author's last name, then ordered by year {Jones and Brown (1990); Jones and Smith (1988)}; and [c] three (and more)-author references, ordered by year {Jones et al. (1983); Jones et al. (1993a); Jones et al. (1993b)}. 

    • Begin each reference on a separate line; first line indented using a single tab (default tab stop 0.75 cm).

    • Reference list style

      • For a paper from a journal: last names and initials of all authors (not "et al."), year (in parentheses), full title of paper, name of publication (use only standard Index Medicus abbreviations – as used by PubMed), volume number (in bold, followed by a colon) and first and last pages (separated by a dash) must be provided. Do not use any punctuation (nor "and" or "&" preceding last author's name), except for commas between authors' names, a period/full-stop at the end of the title, a colon following the volume-number, a single space before the first page number and a period/full-stop following the last page number (separated from the first page number by a hyphen, not an ‘en-dash’ or ‘em dash’). Do not add the DOI number. e.g.
                 Jaguar S, Jensen TL, Lesser-More A, Crapp T (2011) The effects of bone defects on the ability of small animals to walk. Unpub Res 50: 137-142.

      • For a book: include name(s) and initials of author(s), year, title of book (in upper and lower case), name and city of publisher, page-range or chapter cited; do not refer to an entire book. For a multi-author book or proceedings, in addition, the names of editor(s), name and city of publisher or alternatively full availability information, as well as the page-range must be included.

      • For an internal or contract report, Master's and Doctoral thesis: relevant inclusive pages, full availability information with identification numbers and complete address must be provided.

      • Please ensure all references have any abbreviations in uppercase letters, e.g. "DNA" not "dna".

      • In the reference title, only the first letter of the first word should be capitalised (except for capitalised abbreviations such as DNA or RNA).

      • Output styles for Endnote, Reference Manager and Zotero.
        Note: eCM Journal is not responsible for content downloaded from other sites.
        Download for Endnote (As Zip file): Eur_Cell_Mater2014
        Download for Reference Manager (As Zip file): Eur_Cell_Mater
        Download for Zotero (External site):
  • Discussion with Reviewers (added following review process): the Discussion with Reviewers (DWR) section is an important part of eCM journal manuscripts and should be prepared with great care. Improper, careless or non-responsive answers will require revision and will thus delay publication. No length limit is imposed on DWR, therefore please provide complete but concise answers. The DWR section will be placed immediately following the References. Extra figures and references can be included, when necessary. References that have already been included in the paper reference list should be cited as follows (Jones, 2003,). References that not have been cited previously, should be cited as follows (Johnson, 2003, additional reference).

  • Further important detailed specification on style – applicable to all sections.

Text - Headings - Equations - Symbols and abbreviations - Tables - Units - Statistical tests - Figures (incl. Legends)

    • Text: all text must be in Times New Roman font. Each paragraph should be clearly indented with a tab character (default tab stop 0.75 cm). Sentences should be separated by single spaces only. Greek and other symbols should be entered using the standard Microsoft Word Insert Symbol tool that uses the Times New Roman font. Symbol font should NOT be used.

    • Headings: do not number headings. Major headings should be typed in bold upper and lower case. Subheadings: print bold and place flush with the left margin of the text on a separate line. Sub-subheadings: print italic and place flush with the left margin of the text on a separate line. All headings must conform to these categories.  

    • Equations: each equation must be centred on a separate line, consecutively numbered. Equation numbers, in parentheses, should be flush with the right margin. The equation should normally be prepared using 'Microsoft Equation Editor' and embedded in the MS Word file.

    • Symbols and abbreviations: define each abbreviation in parentheses the first time it is used (even if it has already been defined in the Abstract). For more than 10 symbols include a separate table in the text defining symbols (with units, as applicable).

    • Tables: tables MUST be provided as individual separate files in Microsoft Word Table format. Tables should NOT be embedded in the manuscript main Microsoft Word file. Tables should be numbered and referred to sequentially in the text. Each Table should have a short descriptive heading on the same line as the Table number. Additional details, explanation of symbols, etc., should be placed at the bottom of the Table. All text contained in the table(s) should be in Times New Roman font. Tables must fit into either one column (8 cm wide), or two columns (i.e. 17 cm wide). Each table MUST fit onto a single A4 page, when a 9 pt font size is used for the included text. Where a table needs to be larger than that which will fit onto a single A4 page, then the table must be split into the required number of tables and labelled appropriately (e.g. Table 1a, 1b.. etc.) and provided as separate Microsoft Word files. All letters and numbers in tables should be at least 9 pt size. Tables must not be supplied as bitmap images (e.g. jpg or tiff files), as the reproduction quality is usually unacceptable. The style for the use of units must be consistent with that described below, under Units.

    • Units: only standard International System of Units (SI) and accepted Non-SI units should be used (for guidance see: and download their brochure). The correct SI unit for litres, ‘L’ should always be used. There must always be a space between the number and the unit (e.g. 10 mL), including temperature (e.g. 10 ºC) and percentage (e.g. 10 %), but not degree angle (e.g. 45º angle). The space must be a non-break space (Ctrl+Shift+Spacebar). Standard abbreviations for time units (s, min, h, d) must always be used – the forms ‘sec’, ‘mins’ and ‘hrs’ are not acceptable. Please note that ‘weeks’, ‘months’ and ‘years’ should not be abbreviated. For centrifugation speeds the Relative Centrifugal Force (RCF) value should be used, normally designated by ‘×g’, following the value (e.g. 2,000 ×g). Please note that the ‘g’ must be in italic.

    • Statistical tests: these should be clearly defined and statistical significance should be shown in both figures and tables by superscripts of a, b, c, rather than *, ¶, # or other non-sequential symbols. Statistical terms (e.g. t, P, p, n etc.) must always be italicised.

    • Figures: eCM Journal does not accept supplementary data figures for publication – all figures must be included in the main figure sequence. i.e., extra figures, included in the Discussion with Reviewers section, should have consecutive numbers following the figure numbers in the paper itself. The only exceptions are Omics data files and video files that are made available from the paper’s web page. In addition, all uncropped, original gel images (western, PCR, etc.) must be uploaded as supplementary figures for review purposes only. Number each figure (including line drawings) and refer to each figure in sequence in the text (no exception to this rule is allowed, even if several figures are mounted to form a plate). Multiple illustrations within each figure must be designated (lower case bold, upper left side of the illustration) as a, b, c etc. and referred to as such in the figure legend. Such multiple illustration figures should be supplied already assembled as a single jpg file that will fit onto a single A4 page at a minimum resolution of 400 dpi. Each figure must have a comprehensive legend, all supplied as a list at the end of main text document. The style for the use of units must be consistent with that described above, under Units.
      All figures must be supplied in the form of jpg files and named fig_1, fig_2. etc., as high resolution (at minimum 400 dpi – in their final size – as printed on an A4 page). tif, pdf or MS PowerPoint files are not acceptable since they can cause difficulties during review or layout production. Where figures are derived from programs such as MS Excel files, they must be saved as jpg files and not included in the form of embedded objects in a MS Word file. Figures should NOT be embedded in the manuscript main MS Word file.  

      • Legend: each figure must have a separate legend. The legend should include: Fig. x. (in bold), followed by the caption text. The text should provide a comprehensive description of the figure(s) and scale-line dimension(s), if it is not already included in the image.

      • Use arrows or letters of sufficient size to point out features in figures. Use white lettering on dark backgrounds and vice versa. Labelling must be incorporated in the jpg files before saving. Magnification marker/scale MUST be included on all image figures: use a line (scale bar) representing 10 µm, 1 µm, 100 nm, etc. to indicate magnification, specify the line size either on the image or in the legend. The scale bar must be large enough (width and length) to be easily seen in the final A4 size pdf page. Magnification should NOT be indicated as '× ..........' in the legend, as this has no useful meaning.

      • Stereopairs: use 7.5 cm wide photographs, if already mounted, the space between photos on the final size (printed on A4) should be 12 mm. Red/green and red/cyan (please specify) anaglyphs are preferred, if possible.

      • Graphs: Graphs should start the y axis at 0 or show a clear scale break in those cases where starting at 0 would be difficult. The numerals on graph scales should be sufficiently large and clear enough and spaced to allow the data to be interpreted and the nature of the scale, e.g. linear or logarithmic, readily appreciated. Any measurement units shown must follow the convention described under Units above. Standard deviation (SD) or Standard Error of the mean (SEM) must be shown. As all graphs are printed as received, all text, including scale numerals, should have good contrast and be of high quality and easily readable, even when printed at the reduced size that figures will usually be printed, i.e. column width. The Production Editor reserves the right to reject and request replacements of graphs deemed to be of insufficient quality. GraphPad Prism ( is an example of appropriate software for the preparation of  high-quality graphs. All graphs must be converted to jpg format of sufficient resolution (400 dpi on A4 page).

      • Note: as a guide on image resolution for submission. The DPI number is relative to a specific image size (i.e. the number of ‘dots per inch’ on the final printed image). The largest image size we would fit on an eCM Journal page (based on printing the paper on A4 paper – the size it is designed to be) gives the following dimensions and average file sizes: size of image: 170 × 250 mm; dpi: 400; image size: approx. 30 MB. Based on a photo with average detail content, jpg (medium compression – adequate for our needs) gives a file size of approx. 1 MB (final file size will be variable and depends on image content). Line diagrams and graphs would give even smaller file sizes. Therefore, to make the file a sensible size, when using 400 dpi the image size needs to be set to 170 × 250 mm.