eCM (Eur Cell Mater / e Cells & Materials) Not-for-Profit Open Access
Created by Scientists, for Scientists
 ISSN:1473-2262         NLM:100973416 (link)         DOI:10.22203/eCM

2006   Volume No 11– pages 57-75

Title: Mechanically loaded ex vivo bone culture system 'Zetos': Systems and culture preparation

Authors: CM Davies, DB Jones, MJ Stoddart, K Koller, E Smith, CW Archer, RG Richards

Address: AO Research Institute, AO Foundation, Davos, Switzerland

E-mail: geoff.richards at

Key Words: Bone, culture, histology, immunhistochemistry, species variation, bioreactor, Technovit

Publication date: April 12th 2006

Abstract: This paper introduces the culture preparation of ovine, bovine and human cancellous bone cores to be used in an explants model Zetos. The three dimensional (3D) bone cores were prepared and evaluated for all three animals. Bone cells in vivo constantly interact with each other, migratory cells, surrounding extracellular matrix (eCM) and interstitial fluid in a microenvironment, which continuously responds to various endogenous and exogenous stimuli. The Zetos system was designed to culture and mechanically load viable cancellous bone explants in their near natural microenvironment. This 3D ex vivo system bridges the current gap between in vitro and in vivo methods. One aim of this work was to compare the macro and micro-architecture of ovine, bovine and human cancellous bone tissue in preparation for culture within the Zetos system in order to determine the optimal source of experimental material. A second aim was to optimise the preparations of the bone cores as well as develop techniques involved during tissue maintenance. Bone core response was visualised using histological and immunohistochemical methods. The results demonstrate that cancellous bone explants vary greatly in trabecular density and bone volume depending on species, age and location. Sheep and human samples displayed the greatest variation between bones cores when compared to bovine. Even cores taken from the same animal possessed very different characteristics. The histology demonstrated normal bone and cell structure after the core preparation. Immunohistochemistry results demonstrated antigen retention after preparation methods.


Article download: Pages 57-75 (PDF file)
DOI: 10.22203/eCM.v011a07