eCM (Eur Cell Mater / e Cells & Materials) Not-for-Profit Open Access
Created by Scientists, for Scientists
 ISSN:1473-2262         NLM:100973416 (link)         DOI:10.22203/eCM

2006   Volume No 11– pages 76-85

Title: Nuclear Factor-kappaB controls the reaggregation of 3D neurosphere cultures in vitro

Authors: D Widera, I Mikenberg, A Kaus, C Kaltschmidt, B Kaltschmidt

Address: Institut für Neurobiochemie, Universität Witten/Herdecke, Stockumer Str. 10, D-58448 Witten, Germany

E-mail: b.kaltschmidt at

Key Words: Neural stem cell, neurosphere, TNF-alpha, aggregation, cell motility, Nuclear Factor-kappaB, IkappaB, neurosphere formation, somatic stem cell, reaggregation, tissue culture, 3D

Publication date: May 23rd 2006

Abstract: The approach of reaggregation involves the regeneration and self-renewal of histotypical 3D spheres from isolated tissue kept in suspension culture. Reaggregated spheres can be used as tumour, genetic, biohybrid and neurosphere models. In addition the functional superiority of 3D aggregates over conventional 2D cultures developed the use of neurospheres for brain engineering of CNS diseases. Thus 3D aggregate cultures created enormous interest in mechanisms that regulate the formation of multicellular aggregates in vitro. Here we analyzed mechanisms guiding the development of 3D neurosphere cultures. Adult neural stem cells can be cultured as self-adherent clusters, called neurospheres. Neurospheres are characterised as heterogeneous clusters containing unequal stem cell sub-types. Tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF- alpha is one of the crucial inflammatory cytokines with multiple actions on several cell types. TNF- alpha strongly activates the canonical Nuclear Factor Kappa-B (NF-kappaB) pathway. In order to investigate further functions of TNF in neural stem cells (NSCs) we tested the hypothesis that TNF is able to modulate the motility and/or migratory behaviour of SVZ derived adult neural stem cells. We observed a significantly faster sphere formation in TNF treated cultures than in untreated controls. The very fast aggregation of isolated NSCs (<2h) is a commonly observed phenomenon, though the mechanisms of 3D neurosphere formation remain largely unclear. Here we demonstrate for the first time, increased aggregation and enhanced motility of isolated NSCs in response to the TNF-stimulus. Moreover, this phenomenon is largely dependent on activated transcription factor NF-kappaB. Both, the pharmacological blockade of NF-kappaB pathway by pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC) or Bay11-7082 and genetic blockade by expression of a transdominant-negative super-repressor IkappaB-AA1 led to decreased aggregation.


Article download: Pages 76-85 (PDF file)
DOI: 10.22203/eCM.v011a08

Download movies (see paper for details - Results section)
Movie 1
Movie 2
Movie 3