eCM (Eur Cell Mater / e Cells & Materials) Not-for-Profit Open Access
Created by Scientists, for Scientists
 ISSN:1473-2262         NLM:100973416 (link)         DOI:10.22203/eCM

2012   Volume No 24 – pages 175-196

Title: Injected matrix stimulates myogenesis and regeneration of mouse skeletal muscle after ischaemic injury

Author: D Kuraitis, D Ebadi, P Zhang, E Rizzuto, B Vulesevic, DT Padavan, A Al Madhoun, KA McEwan, T Sofrenovic, K Nicholson, SC Whitman, TG Mesana, IS Skerjanc, A Musarò, M Ruel, EJ Suuronen

Address: Division of Cardiac Surgery, University of Ottawa Heart Institute, 40 Ruskin Street, Ottawa, ON K1Y 4W7, Canada

E-mail: esuuronen at

Key Words: Hydrogel; injectable; muscle; neovascularisation; regenerative medicine; tissue-material interactions.

Publication date: September 12th 2012

Abstract: Biomaterial-guided regeneration represents a novel approach for the treatment of myopathies. Revascularisation and the intramuscular extracellular matrix are important factors in stimulating myogenesis and regenerating muscle damaged by ischaemia. In this study, we used an injectable collagen matrix, enhanced with sialyl LewisX (sLeX), to guide skeletal muscle differentiation and regeneration. The elastic properties of collagen and sLeX-collagen matrices were similar to those of skeletal muscle, and culture of pluripotent mESCs on the matrices promoted their differentiation into myocyte-like cells expressing Pax3, MHC3, myogenin and Myf5. The regenerative properties of matrices were evaluated in ischaemic mouse hind-limbs. Treatment with the sLeX-matrix augmented the production of myogenic-mediated factors insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1, and IGF binding protein-2 and -5 after 3 days. This was followed by muscle regeneration, including a greater number of regenerating myofibres and increased transcription of Six1, M-cadherin, myogenin and Myf5 after 10 days. Simultaneously, the sLeX-matrix promoted increased mobilisation and engraftment of bone marrow-derived progenitor cells, the development of larger arterioles and the restoration of tissue perfusion. Both matrix treatments tended to reduce maximal forces of ischaemic solei muscles, but sLeX-matrix lessened this loss of force and also prevented muscle fatigue. Only sLeX-matrix treatment improved mobility of mice on a treadmill. Together, these results suggest a novel approach for regenerative myogenesis, whereby treatment only with a matrix, which possesses an inherent ability to guide myogenic differentiation of pluripotent stem cells, can enhance the endogenous vascular and myogenic regeneration of skeletal muscle, thus holding promise for future clinical use.

Article download: Pages 175-196 (PDF file)
DOI: 10.22203/eCM.v024a13